The climate of the Russian Federation formed under the influence of several determining factors. The vast size of the country and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental and sub-arctic climate, which is prevalent in European and Asian Russia except for the tundra and the extreme southeast.

Most Russians live in continental climate with distinct periods of warm (summer) and cold (winter) weather. The coldest month is January (February on the shores of the sea), the warmest usually is July. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Summers can be quite hot and humid, even in Siberia. A small part of Black Sea coast around Sochi has a subtropical climate. The coldest temperature in the world (-71 C) is fixed in Oimyakon also known as the Frost Pole. Temperature in Moscow and Saint-Petersburg range from +25 C in July down to -25 C in January.